Tuesday, 7 June 2011

Jake-Based Songs (1930s)

General Details:
  • Dr. John P. Morgan, a professor at the City University of New York Medical School collected a number of songs about the Ginger Jake syndrome (Jake leg, Jake leg blues, Jake walk) in the 1930s.(1)
Songs:
  • 1928 - Lemuel Turner “Jake Bottle Blues”
  • 1930 - Allen Brothers “Jake Walk Blues”
  • 1930 - Ray Brothers “Jake Leg Wobble” - instrumental
  • 1930 - Byrd Moore “Jake Leg Blues”
  • 1930 - Ray Brothers “Got The Jake Leg Too”
  • 1930 - Narmour and Smith “Jake Leg Rag - instrumental
  • 1930 - Tommy Johnson “Alcohol and Jake Blues”
  • 1930 - Ishman Bracey “Jake Liquor Blues”
  • 1930 - Mississippi Sheiks “Jake Leg Blues”
  • 1930 - Daddy Stovepipe “Jake Leg Blues
  • 1933 - Asa Martin “Jake Walk Papa”
  • 1934 - Willie Lofton “Jake Leg Blues"
Reference:
1 - Morgan, John P. (1982) “The Jamaica Ginger Paralysis" J Am Med Assoc 1982; 248:1864-1867

Image: Jake Based Songs (1930s)
Tags: 1930s - Blues - Ginger Jake - Jake Legs - Jamaica Ginger - Legs - Prohibition - Songs
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Ginger Jake Syndrome (Jake Leg Blues)

General Details:
  • A form of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDN) which occurred during the US Prohibition Era of the 1930s.
  • Affected some 20,000 men in South & Midwest America.
  • Characterized by arm & leg weakness & pain after drinking "Ginger Jake" a medicinal alcohol substitute.
  • The cause of the disorder was tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP, pictured) poisoning which developed because of the adulteration of "Ginger Jake" from a Jamaican ginger extract.
  • The association of "Ginger Jake" with the neurological syndrome was first suggested by Oklahoma doctors E. Miles and W.H. Goldfain.
  • Dr. Maurice Smith (U.S. Public Health Service) confirmed that tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) was the causative agent.
  • Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate is an organophosphate which selectively inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in mammals and can potentially cause fatal hyperactivity of their acetylcholine neurotransmitters.
Ginger Jake Syndrome Clinical Features:
  • Partially reversible neurologic damage.
  • Relatively low acute toxicity, so presents with a delayed neurotoxicity.
  • Producing a limping "Jake Leg" or "Jake Walk" - terms frequently used in blues music from that era (examples).
References:
Morgan J, Tulloss T (1976). The Jake Walk Blues: An Toxicologic Tragedy Mirrored in American Popular Music. Ann. Int. Med. (1976), 85:6. 804-808.

Image: Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate Structure
Tags: Blues - Ginger Jake - Neuropathy - OPIDN - Organophospate - Prohibition - TOCP - Tri-ortho-cresyl Phosphate
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Monday, 30 May 2011

Cholinergic Toxidrome


Cholinergic Toxidrome Details:
  • From an occupational & environmental health point of view, the cholinergic toxidrome is the most important syndrome to be aware of.
  • The other toxidromes (ie anticholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, sedative/hypnotic, hallucinogenic) are most often associated with overdoses of drugs or medications.
  • SLUDGE or DUMBELLS are simple mnemonics for the common clinical symptoms (see below).
  • Clinical interpretation of this toxidrome can be complicated if multiple agents are involved.
Cholinergic Toxidrome Aetiologic Agents:
  • Organophosphate pesticides (ie malathion, diazinon)
  • Carbamates (ie physostigmine, carbaryl)
  • Mushrooms (certain types)
  • Sarin (warfare agent)
Cholinergic Toxidrome Pathophysiology:
  • The underlying mechanism is excessive cholinergic (acetylcholine) receptor stimulation.
  • There are various classes of cholinergic receptors (see table) that can be stimulated in this toxidrome.
  • The symptoms induced depend on the relative stimulation of the different receptors.
  • Common clinical features can be remembered by the mnemonics SLUDGE or DUMBELLS syndrome.
SLUDGE Syndrome:
  • S - Salivation
  • L - Lacrimation
  • U - Urination
  • D - Diarrhoea
  • G - Gastrointestinal distress
  • E - Emesis
DUMBELLS Syndrome:
  • D - Diarrhoea
  • U - Urination
  • M - Miosis (small pupils)
  • B - Bradycardia
  • E - Emesis
  • L - Lacrimation
  • L - Lethargy
  • S - Salivation
Tags: Acetylcholine - Carbaryl - Cholinergic Toxidrome - Diazinon - DUMBELLS - Malathion - Muscarinic Receptor - Nicotinic Receptor - Organophosphate Pesticide - Physostigmine - Sarin - SLUDGE Syndrome - Toxidrome
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Monday, 13 December 2010

Banksy Toxic Rat (Toxicology Street Art)



Banksy Toxic Rat (Toxicology Street Art):
Tags: Art - Banksy - Rat - Street Art - Toxic - Toxicology
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Nanotoxicology - Nanoparticle Exposure Diseases


Nanotoxicology - Nanoparticle Exposure Diseases:
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Arrythmia
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Asthma
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Bronchitis
  • Cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Crohn's disease
  • Death
  • Dermatitis
  • Diseases of unknown aetiology
  • Emphysema
  • Heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Podoconiosis
  • Thrombosis
  • Urticaria
  • Vasculitis
  • Vasoconstriction
Image: by Cristina Buzea on Wikipedia (Public Domain)
Tags: Disease - Exposure - Nanoparticle - Nanotoxicology
Posted by Medicalchemy
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Tuesday, 2 November 2010

Crack Cocaine - Main Physiological Effects (Image)



Crack Cocaine - Main Physiological Effects (Image):
  • Systemic - Increased temperature (Hyperpyrexia)
  • Pupils - Dilated pupils
  • Vestibular - Vertigo
  • Vascular - Hypertension, Vasoconstriction
  • Cardiac - Heart rate increased, Cardiac arrest risk
  • Lungs - Respiratory arrest risk
  • Neuromuscular - Muscle twitches, Tremor
Image: Crack Cocaine Main Physiological Effect
Image Source: by Mikael Häggström on Wikipedia (Public Domain)
Tags: Cardiac Arrest - Crack Cocaine - Dilated Pupils - Hypertension - Muscle Twitches - Respiratory Arrest - Tremor - Vasoconstriction - Vertigo
Posted by Medicalchemy
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Cocaine-Induced Chest Pain - Differential Diagnosis


Cocaine-Induced Chest Pain - Causes & Exacerbating Factors (A to Z):
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute pulmonary hypertension
  • Acute systemic hypertension
  • Aortic dissection
  • Coronary artery spasm
  • Cough chest pain following inhalation
  • Haemopneumothorax
  • Myocardial ischaemia
  • Pneumomediastinum
  • Pneumopericardium
  • Pneumothorax
  • Rhabdomyolysis of chest muscles
  • Septic Embolism
Image: Cocaine 3D Model
Image Source: by Benjah-bmm27 on Wikipedia (Public Domain)
Tags: Acute Bronchitis - Aortic Dissection - Chest Pain - Cocaine - Coronary Artery Spasm - Myocardial Ischaemia - Pneumothorax - Pulmonary Hypertension - Rhabdomyolysis
Posted by Medicalchemy
Medicalchemy Group: History of Medicine - Images - Mnemonics - Syndromes - Anaesthesiology - Anatomy - Biochemistry - Cardiology - Dermatology - Drugs -
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